Formative Assessment Phase 2

This study explored the implementation of formative assessment practices in Philippine classrooms. The Formative Assessment Phase 1 study was conducted in the National Capital Region (NCR) by ACTRC in 2014. Phase 1 involved the observation of assessment practices in 60 Philippine classrooms, resulting in identification of patterns of practice. Since that time, the Philippine Department of Education has released policy guidelines on classroom assessment for the K to 12 Basic Education Program, providing information about the theory, purposes, parameters, processes and guidelines on classroom assessment.

The Formative Assessment Phase 2 study was designed to collect baseline data on formative assessment practices and strategies based on classroom observations, particularly in Basic Education Sector Transformation (BEST) program regions. These data, combined with the Phase 1 data, provided the opportunity to track changes in practice brought about by the increasing focus by the Department of Education on formative assessment. In addition, the study evaluated the usefulness and validity of a classroom observation tool adapted for use in the Philippine context and culture.

The research questions the study sought to address were:

  • What are the characteristics of the Philippine classroom in terms of formative assessment pedagogies?
  • How effective is the adapted classroom observation instrument in providing information that can be used by DepEd to improve practices?
  • What are the strategies that might enhance the use of formative assessment strategies in the classroom?

This study commenced in June 2015 and concluded in late 2016.

Project Team

Louie Cagasan, Lead, ACTRC, University of the Philippines

Dr Rebekah Luo, University of Melbourne

Pam Robertson, University of Melbourne

Dr Esther Care, ACTRC


Cagasan, L., Care, E., Robertson, P. & Luo, R. (2020). Developing a Formative Assessment Protocol to Examine Formative Assessment Practices in the PhilippinesEducational Assessment, 25(4), pp. 259-275. doi:10.1080/10627197.2020.1766960

Cagasan, L., Luo, R., Robertson, P. & Care E. (2016). Formative Assessment Phase 2 Research Report. Assessment, Curriculum and Technology Research Centre (ACTRC). Melbourne and Manila.

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