The ACTRC, in partnership with DepEd, has recently completed a comprehensive review of the K-12 curriculum, a major education reform that was started in 2012. The need to undertake a review was flagged at the time of the curriculum introduction, and as with the introduction of all new systems, review is essential to address problems that can emerge. ACTRC acknowledges DepEd’s proactive role in this review and its determination to see through the recommendations stemming from the research findings.
The changes to the Philippine education system were formalised with the passing of the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, which shifted the school curriculum from a 10-year to a 13-year education system, known as the K to 12 Basic Education Program. The K to 12 system aims to provide enough time for learners to master concepts and skills, develop lifelong learning, and prepare for higher education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship (Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013).
The ACTRC Curriculum Review Project began when the rollout of the K-12 curriculum was completed by the end of the School Year (SY) 2017-2018. The purpose of the review was to provide an evidence base which could be used to inform future curriculum and policy decision-making, and to build the capacity of relevant bureaus within the Department of Education (DepEd) to independently conduct high-quality reviews in the future.
The Curriculum Review Project addressed four key curriculum components, namely, (1) the Intended Curriculum, (2) the Implemented Curriculum, (3) the Tested Curriculum, and (4) the Attained Curriculum and the degree of alignment between these components.
What was involved?
The Review of the Intended Curriculum examined necessary prerequisites of the essential learning competencies, compared cognitive demand across and within grade levels, and conducted an international comparison with learning topics and cognitive demands in the Philippine curriculum. This part of the review focused on the curriculum of Grades 3, 6 and 10.
The Review of the Implemented Curriculum examined how the intended curriculum is implemented in classrooms. It explored factors that help and/or hinder teachers in implementing the curriculum, providing insights into what is working well and what could be further strengthened, and, where problems exist, allowing for these to be addressed. The review focused on three key aspects: time needed to teach learning competencies, prerequisite skills and knowledge needed by students, and factors affecting the implementation of the curriculum. Over 2,200 Grades 3, 6, 10 and Senior High School (SHS) teachers were involved in this review.
The Review of the Tested Curriculum explored the extent to which the national tests are assessing the intended curriculum, with a focus on students from Grades 3, 6, 10 and Senior High School (SHS).
The Review of the Attained Curriculum compared Grades 3, 6, 10 and 12 students’ attainment with intended curriculum outcomes, and, through focus group discussions, with the expectations of prospective employers and tertiary education institutions. This provided insights into the effectiveness of the curriculum in preparing learners for higher education and/or employment. The attained curriculum review captures what students know and can do on leaving school. It provided an outcome measure of the effectiveness of the basic education system.
DepEd has received full reports for each review component and is responding to ensure appropriate changes are ready for the SY 2022-2023.
Reports may be accessed through the links below:
The Curriculum Review Project was supported by the Australian Government and implemented by ACTRC.